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首頁 > 高考總復習 > 高考知識點 > 英語高頻考點 > 英語高頻考點:語形容詞與副詞考點
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英語高頻考點:語形容詞與副詞考點

2019-05-23 16:39:13網絡資源

  一、形容詞和副詞的基本用法A.形容詞:就是用來修飾名詞或不定代詞,表示人或事物的性質、狀態和特征的詞。形容詞主要作定語、表語、補語。如:1. This is a new pen. 這是支新鋼筆。(形容詞new作名詞pen定語)

  2. These oranges taste ________. (全國卷)

  A. good

  B. well

  C. to be good

  D. to be well

  【分析】答案選A。系動詞taste(嘗起來)后要接形容詞作表語。

  3. John was so sleepy that he could hardly keep his eyes ________. (全國卷)

  A. open

  B. to be opened

  C. to open

  D. opening

  【分析】答案選A。形容詞open(開著的)作賓補,表示狀態。注意:不要選答案D,因為open是短暫性動詞,不能表狀態。B.副詞:就是修飾動詞、形容詞、其它副詞或全句,說明時間、地點、程度、方式等概念的詞。副詞在句中主要作狀語。如:It’s raining heavily. 雨下得很大。(副詞heavily修飾謂語動詞heavily)It’s a rather interesting job. 這是一份相當有趣的工作。(副詞rather修飾形容詞interesting)She speaks English very well. 她的英語說得很好。(副詞very修飾副詞wel'Times New Roman'">veryThis is just what he said. 這正是他所說的。(副詞just修飾what he said)注:here, there, in, out, away, abroad等少數副詞也可以作表語;here, there, home, abroad, below等表示地點或方位的詞及today, tomorrow, yesterday, back, out等表示時間或動詞方向詞還可以作定語。如:Tom isn’t here. 湯姆不在這里。(here作表語) The people there were very kind to us. 那里的人對我們很友好。(副詞there作定語,修飾people)

  二、定語形容詞與表語形容詞A.表語形容詞:有的形容詞一般只作表語,如表示健康狀況的well, unwell, ill, faint,表示情感反應的glad, sorry, fond, worth, able,以a開頭的afraid, alone, asleep, alive, awake, alike, ashamed等。但有的可作后置定語或補語。B.定語形容詞:通常只作定語的形容詞,如起強調作用的only(唯一的), single(唯一的), certain(某一), certain(真正的), true(真正的), very(正是), live(活的), exact(準確的), present(在場的),由名詞等轉化而來的wooden(木制的), woolen(羊毛制的), drunken(醉的), medical, daily, weekly, electric, former(前任的), some, any, little, many, 及one-eyed之類的復合形容詞等。如:This is a medical school. (不說三、形容詞作定語的后置規律形容詞作定語一般位于所修飾的名詞前,但是在下列情況下作定語的形容詞卻要位于所修飾的名詞之后:形容詞作定語一般位于所修飾的名詞前,但是在下列情況下作定語 A.形容詞短語作定語時要后置。

  如:________ to take this adventure course will certainly learn a lot of useful skills. (全國卷)

  A. Brave enough students

  B. Enough brave students

  C. Students brave enough

  D. Students enough brave

  【分析】答案選C。enough修飾形容詞時要位于形容詞之后,排除B和修飾形容詞時要位于形容詞之后,排除D。brave enough to…是形容詞短語作定語,修飾students,要置于名詞students之后。B.表語形容詞作定語要后置。如:All the people________ at the party were his supporters. (北京卷)

  A. present

  B. thankful

  C. interested

  D. important

  【分析】答案選A。表語形容詞present(出席的、在場的)作定語,要放在所修飾的名詞后。C.形容詞修飾不定代詞something, anything, nothing等時,要位于后面。如:Is there anything important in the paper? 報紙上有什么重要新聞嗎

  四、多個形容詞作定語的排序多個形容詞修飾名詞時,其排序規律是:ab-stops: 199.5pt">限定詞+程度副詞+) 描繪性形容詞+表示大小(長短、高低)、形狀、年齡(新舊)的形容詞+表顏色Roman'">的形容詞+表國籍或產地的形容詞+表物質材料的形容詞+表類別或用途的形容詞+名詞。

  如:1. John Smith, a successful businessman, has a ________ car. (遼寧卷)

  A. large German white

  B. large white German

  C. white large German

  D. German large white

  【分析】答案選B。按“大小+顏色+產地”的順序排列。

  2. ________ students are required to take part in the boat race.ont-weight: normal">浙江卷)

  A. Ten strong young Chinese

  B. Ten Chinese strong young

  C. Chinese ten young strong

  D. Young strong ten Chinese

  【分析】答案選A。數詞是限定詞,應排在形容詞前,排除C和D;又strong是描繪,young是年齡,Chinese是國籍,其先后應為“描繪+年齡+國籍”。

  3. The ________ house smells as if it hasn’t been lived in for years. (江蘇卷)

  A. little white wooden

  B. little wooden white

  C. white wooden little

  【分析】答案選A。little是限定詞,應放在形容詞前面,排除C和D;表示顏色的應放在表示物質材料的形容詞的前面,排除B。

  注:限定詞的排序:前位限定詞 (指量限定詞all, both, half等;倍數詞double, twice等;分數詞one-third, two-fifths等) +中位限定詞 (冠詞;指示代詞;形容詞性物主代詞;名詞所有格)+后位限定詞 (序數詞及last, next等;基數詞及few, several等)等。

  如:1. The husband gave his wife ________ every month in order to please her. (重慶卷)

  A. all half his income

  B. his half all income

  C. half his all income

  D. all his half income

  【分析】答案選A。all和half都是前位限定詞,his是中位限定詞,所以his要位于all和half之后,只有A正確。

  2. —How was your recent visit to Qingdao?—It was great. We visited some friends, and spent the ________ days at the seaside. (全國卷)

  A. few last sunny

  B. last few sunny

  C. last sunny few

  D. few sunny last

  【分析】答案選B。last, few是限定詞,sunny是描繪性形容詞,根據“限定詞+形容詞”的原則,排除C的原則,排除和D。又根據“序數詞(包括last, past, next, another等)+基數詞(包括few, several等)”的原則,排除A。 五、副詞在句中的位置規律1) 副詞修飾形容詞或其它副詞時,一般位于被修飾詞的前面,但enough卻要放在被修飾的形容詞或副詞的后面。

  如:1. —Mum, I think I’m ________ to get back to school. —Not really, my dear. You’d better stay at home for another day or two. (全國卷)

  A. so well

  B. so good

  C. well enough

  D. good enough

  【分析】答案選C。指“身體好”用形容詞well (=healthy)而不用good;副詞enough修飾形容詞時,要位于形容詞之后。

  2. If I had ________, I’d visit Europe, stopping at the small interesting places. (全國卷)

  A. a long enough holiday

  B. an enough long holiday

  C. a holiday enough long

  D. a long holiday enough

  【分析】答案選A。enough要放在形容詞long之后。

  3. ________, some famous scientists have the qualities of being both careful and careless. (上海卷)A. Strangely enough

  B. Enough strangely

  C. Strange enough

  D. Enough strange

  【分析】答案選A。修飾整個句子,要用副詞,排除C和。修飾整個句子,要用副詞,排除D;副詞enough應放在它所修飾的副詞strangely的后面,所以選A。2) 頻度副詞always, usually, often, never等一般放ONT>be動詞之后。如:She always gets up early. 她總是起得早。(副詞always放在行為動詞gets之前)She is seldom late for school. 他很少上學遲到。(副詞seldom放在be動詞之后)3) 詞表示地點的副詞常放在句末;表示確定時間的副詞放在句首或句末;表示方式的副詞詞通常放在“動詞(+賓語)”之后,也可放在其它位置;同時有表示時間、地點和方式的副詞時,其順序一般為:方式+地點+時間。

  如:________ I went to the railway station to see my friend off. (全國卷)

  A. After eating quickly my dinner

  B. After my quickly eating dinner

  C. After eating my dinner quickly

  D. After eating my quickly dinner

  【分析】答案選C。方式副詞一般位于“動詞(+賓語)”之后。

  六、–ed形容詞和-ing形容詞的區別-ed形容詞,通常說明人,意為“(某人)感到…”;-ing形容詞通常說明事物,意為“(某事物)令人…”或“令人…的(事物)”。這樣成對的形容詞有:interested / interesting; excited / exciting; frightened / frightening; surprised / surprising; pleased / pleasing; moved / moving; disappointed / disappointing等。

  1. Laws that punish parents for their little children’s actions against the laws get parents ________. (重慶卷)

  A. worried

  B. to worried

  C. worrying   &333300nbsp;

  D. worry

  【分析】答案選A。表示人“感到憂慮的”用-ed形容詞。句意是:…法律使得做父母的感到憂慮。

  2. It is believed that if a book is ________, it will surely ________ the reader.

  A. interested; interest

  B. interesting; be interested

  C. interested; be tab-stops: 199.5pt">

  D. interesting; interest

  【分析】答案選D。指書令人有趣用interesting而不interested,排除A和C。interest是動詞,“使…有趣”。注:即使-ed形容詞用以說明事物,那也是指與該事物相關的人;即使-ing形容詞用以說明人,也是指此人具有該性質或特征。如:-ingHe told me the news in an excited voice. 他告訴了那個消息,聲音很激動。這個有很有趣。

  另外,glad, happy, sorry, angry, thankful, proud等的主語也只能是人;而pleasant, easy, difficult, important 等則通常以事物或it作主語,因為它們是說明事物的。

  如:—I’m very ________ with my own cooking. It looks nice and smells delicious. —Mn, it does have a ________ smell. (北京卷)

  A. pleasant; pleased

  B. pleased; pleased

  C. pleasant; pleasant

  D. pleased; pleasant

  【分析】答案選D。pleased指“(人)感到高興”,pleasant指“令人愉快的(事物)”。

 

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